One in three people worldwide live without safe and dignified toilets, over 200 million in African slums. This leads to widespread illness, pollution, and death. Container-based sanitation services address the problem by collecting human faeces in containers, inside toilets, inside peoples’ homes. These services regularly collect the containers and biodegrade the faeces into products, e.g. compost. Generally, container-toilets are smelly, and services are inefficient and unsafe.

The answer to this problem is PooPac.

PooPac is a bioactive paper bag that suppresses the toilet smell. The biodegradable PooPac is sealed for transport, and directly composted, removing all contact with faeces. PooPac can increase access to safe and dignified sanitation.

Roles and Responsibilities

This is Joshua Urieli’s masters project, a 3 semester masters at the Zurich University of Arts. During the masters he conceptualised the project, built the necessary partnerships, developed a solution and communicated that solutions. His responsibilities ranged across researching into mycology, organising travel in Kenya, conducting field research in Kenya, finding materials, designing the product itself, contacting potential partners, presenting the project to get funding, analysing the secondary research, managing project the project time-line and writing a masters thesis about it all.

Reference Documents

PooPac Masters Thesis
PooPac Slidedeck
Mushroom Technology Literature Review



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