One in three people worldwide live without safe and dignified toilets, over 200 million in African slums. This leads to widespread illness, pollution, and death. Container-based sanitation services address the problem by collecting human faeces in containers, inside toilets, inside peoples’ homes. These services regularly collect the containers and biodegrade the faeces into products, e.g. compost. Generally, container-toilets are smelly, and services are inefficient and unsafe.

The answer to this problem is PooPac.

PooPac is a bioactive paper bag that suppresses the toilet smell. The biodegradable PooPac is sealed for transport, and directly composted, removing all contact with faeces. PooPac can increase access to safe and dignified sanitation.

This project was undertaken as part of a Master of Arts in Design at the Zurich University of Arts (ZHdK). The masters project was completed over three semesters and included two 5 week field trips to Kisumu, Kenya in collaboration with MoSan and WSUP.

Reference Documents

PooPac Masters Thesis
PooPac Slidedeck
Mushroom Technology Literature Review



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